Sport Nutrition

Whey  Protein

- It can make a difference throughout your life -


Proteins - the Importance:

Without protein, life would cease to exist. Not only is protein essential, but sufficient protein is necessary for overall maintenance of the body.

Proteins consist more than 50% of dried weight human body. Most of the processes in the human body relies completely on the availability of proteins to work. All bodily functions are in total controlled by enzymes, and all enzymes are protein.

98% of the molecules in the body is replaced every year. So the body you have today is almost completely built of what you ate over the last 6 months.  If the proteins you consumed were poor quality, then all the structures in your body, muscles, bones, blood, teeth and so on will be poor quality. A junk food diet would produce a junkyard body. 

The building blocks of protein is AMINO ACIDS. total 22 amino acids, eight cannot be made by the body but must be consumed daily, not merely to promote optimal health but to assure the continuation of life. These indispensable eight are called essential amino acids. The other 14, although important, are considered conditionally essential (necessary at certain crucial periods) or non-essential, because the body can function without them if necessary. The body makes non-essential amino acids from essential ones.

The RDA for protein is 0.75g per kg body weight. 
Later research done in various countries indicated that when endurance activity is present, the RDA for protein increases to 1.8g / kg body weight. When strength training is involved, like short-event athletes or body building, the need for protein increases to about 3g / kg.

Studies in San Francisco have indicated that the lean muscle gains in a group consuming 2.8g / kg / day was a whopping 271% that of a group consuming only 1.4g/kg / day, while they followed the same training routine for 40 days. 
Romanian weightlifters that were already near the top of their potential, increased their protein intake from 2.2g to 3.5 g / kg / day, they still gained a staggering 6% in muscle mass, and 5% in strength. 

Metabolism of proteins: your body will break down the protein to amino acids, which are then converted to carbon dioxide and water and ammonia. The ammonia is then turned into urea, which is excreted by the kidneys

How much Proteins we need daily?

Table1     RDA of Proteins - for General Public and Sports Category
Body Weight
    RDA
(for general public)
Daily Proteins Needed for Sports/Training Category
kg lbs   Class1- strength - speed - endurance

Bodybuilding, shot-put, javelin, powerlifting, discus, and men's gymnastics.

Class2 - speed - strength - endurance
Rugby, sprints, jumping, boxing, wrestling, karate, judo, sprint, swimming, women's gymnastics, and ball games.
Class3 - Endurance - 

Middle- and long-distance running, triathlon, cross-country, cycling, and tennis.

40 88
30g 88g 74.8g 61.6g
50 110 37.5g 110g 93.5g 77g
60 132 45g 132g 112.2g 92.4g
70 154 52.5g 154g 130.9g 107.8g
80 176 60g 176g 149.6g 123.2g
90 198 67.5g 198g 168.3g 138.6g
100 220 75g 220g 187g 154g
110 242 82.5g 242g 205.7g 169.4g
120 264 90g 264g 224.4g 184.8g
130 286 97.5 286g 243.1g

Sources of Proteins in Foods:
Protein is formed from amino acids. Many of the 21 amino acid can be made by the body from carbohydrate, but the nine essential amino acids must be provided by the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, and histidine. Arginine is also essential for children for healthy growth. 

From where can we get it? Both whey protein concentrate and egg albumin contains almost 100% of the necessary amino acid mix, followed by fish and meats at about 80%, and casein and soy at roughly 75%. Many other plant foods provides less than 50% of the amino acid spectrum. 

Unfortunately a 100g serving of lean steak, supplies only 25g of protein, accompanied by a 15g blob of fat! Remember, although it looks lean, the fat is contained within the meat and cannot be seen, but still it is present. A lean loin of pork would give you 23g protein and 29g fat. Some skinless chicken and turkey are leaner. With the exception of soy, most vegetable food sources supplies proteins in the wrong ratios for human nutrition, especially if you are a physical activity driven individual. 

Table2  Protein Sources from Foods
Low fat foods
Food Type
(100 grams)
Protein
(grams)
Fat
(grams)
Water
(grams)
Protein/Fat
Egg whites (scrambled)
9
0
89
100
Shrimp (steamed)
17
1
81
17.00
Tuna (water packed)
24
1
74
24.00
Clams (steamed)
12
1
84
12.00
Mussels (steamed)
17
2
79
8.50
Turkey breast (skinless, roast)
23
2
74
11.50
Lobster (steamed)
22
4
73
5.50
Trout (grilled, dry)
24
4
71
6.00
Chicken breast (skinless grilled)
26
4
69
6.50
Crab (steamed)
20
5
73
4.00
Salmon
20
13
66
1.54
High fat foods, try to avoid
Beefsteak (lean, grilled)
25 15 57 1.67
Pork Loin (roast)
23 29 46 0.79
Fatback bacon
12 70 17 0.17
Butter 0.5 82 16 0.01

However if you can chose the right foods and get the right amount, but the digestion and absorption of the food proteins into your body still depends on many factors - the cook methods, the meal time, the appetite and digestion, the metabolism & functions of body etc. 

To take the Nutrition Supplements is a simple, easy, reliable and optimal way. Particular helpful for the Athletes, active lifestylers and Aging population. Since the discovery of the wonder of Whey Protein in 1998-2000, We have got the magic weapon.

Protein Supplements :

Protein Supplements Sources -  mostly a blend of the following:
(A blend provides a variety of amino acids and a wide time span of absorption, thus continuously feeding cells.)
• Whey Protein Concentrate and Isolate
• Casein
• Egg Albumin
• Soy

 Protein supplements forms - there are 3 types of  forms:
- Intact protein: casein, they are polypeptides.
- Peptides: digested protein, only two or three amino acids are bonded together.
- Free amino acids: Separated aminoo acids, not bond together.

Hydrolysates is the best absorbed, since the human body has developed a special transport system for hydrolysates, not available to free-form amino acids.  When 2 or 3 amino acids are bonded together, they carry information valuable to the body, thereby getting preference.

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAA) are important to exercisers:
Leucine, isoleucine and valine make up one third of muscle protein. The loss of BCAA's increased dramatically with both endurance and strength exercise. If these are not available in the body, it would be sourced from muscle protein, with the accompanying destruction of muscle. The best time to take BCAA is 1-2 hours prior to your workout, which spares muscle BCAA and testosterone, and also increases testosterone a

Glutamine
Exercise releases great amounts of Glutamine and Alanine, much larger than any other amino acid. This necessitates replenishment, either in free form or as part of a protein supplement.


What is Whey Protein:

Whey is a natural protein that is a by-product of cheesemaking. Whey, contains vitamins, minerals, protein, lactose and traces of milk fat. Most commercial whey supplements are derived from cow’s milk, which is comprised of 6.25% protein: 20% in the form of whey. Whey protein supplements utilize the concentrated protein, eliminating the lactose and milk fat making it a remarkable source of protein.

Whey contains containing a complete protein spectrum. it has all eight essential amino acids (body cannot make it), and non-essential & conditionally essential amino acids. Whey also boasts the highest concentrations of branched chain amino acids (BCAA’s) found in nature. Branched chain amino acids are an important source of energy during exercise and play a key role in protein synthesis.

Whey protein, when properly processed has the highest biological value of all proteins. Biological value relates to how much of the protein consumed is actually absorbed, retained and used by your body. More specifically, biological value is the measure used to rate protein quality through nitrogen retention. The higher the quality of protein, the more nitrogen is absorbed and retained by your body. Whey protein  retains more nitrogen than any other protein (7).

Whey protein is the best protein source, having the highest biological value (BV) of any protein.  Whey (BV-104
Soy (BV-74), 
Casein (BV-77), 
Egg white (BV-88) 
Milk (BV-91).

During the Middle Ages, whey was used in salves and potions used to soothe burns, to inspire vitality and to cure a host of illnesses. 

For years, this amazing source of nutrition went unnoticed. Here in the U.S., up until 1993, whey was primarily used as animal feed because of its great nutrient value and ability to build muscle (meat). It was also used as a functional food ingredient in processed foods to add texture, flavor and nutrients.

In fact, whey is the first nutrient human being ever consumed - In the beginning, colostrum, or mother’s first milk, is nearly 100% whey - one of nature’s strongest immune boosters, protecting a newborn’s fragile health. Even as the composition of breast milk changes, it still is made up predominantly of whey protein because of its inherent nutritional and immunological properties. 

Only recently, modern science has recognized the importance of whey as a nutrient-rich protein source. In 1986, the American Dairy Processing Institute and the International Dairy Federation sponsored the First International Whey Conference. It was followed, 11 years later, by the Second International Whey Conference held October 1997 in Chicago, Illinois, attended by representatives of 24 countries.  Both gatherings focused scientific attention on the wide-ranging benefits and new technologies involved in investigating this significant protein and processing it for human consumption.
Since 1997, evidence of the potential health benefits of whey and its components has continued to accumulate and accelerate.

14 studies (1998-2000), have provided reports on WPC and WPI, researchers to conclude that more than one component is responsible for an individual biological activity; together these studies confirm a wealth of whey-linked health benefits. These include antihypertension, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulation and protection against osteoporosis.

Whether in vitro/in vivo, experimental animals or human clinical studies, the research light has been shining on the bioactive properties of whey components after digestion.
Recent studies confirm a wealth of whey-linked health benefits, including anti-hypertension, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulation and protection against osteoporosis

Specifically, the components offer several health and nutritional properties, including:

A high-quality nutritional amino acid source.
Growth enhancement of bifidobacteria and other desirable gut microflora.
Immuno-enhancing qualities.
Antitoxin activities.
Control of cancer and other diseases.
A manufacturing base for the production of infant foods similar in composition to mother's milk.

Currently, a number of components are demonstrated to positively affect health and nutrition. Among them are beta-lactoglobulin (or lactoglobulin), alpha-lactalbumin (or lactalbumin), immunoglobulins and bovine serum albumin (BSA), the four major fractions that together comprise up to 80% of the total proteins in whey. Two minor proteins - lactoferrin and glycomacropeptides - appear to offer major multiple biological functionalities in greater abundance than other components.

Commercial whey proteins are justly praised for offering superior nutritional quality for human consumption.

Ask the bodybuilders who have built incredible muscular physiques with whey. Or ask nutritionists and fitness experts who keep themselves and their clients fit, slim and toned with whey. They’ll tell you that everyone - from athletes, to those wanting to live a healthier lifestyle - can look better and feel healthier by consuming whey protein - everyday.

Commercial Whey Protein Products;

Commercial wheys range from whey protein concentrates (WPCs) to whey protein isolates (WPIs) and individual whey protein fractions, including major fractions, lactoglobulin, lactalbumin, immunoglobulins; and minor fractions, lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. 

Whey Protein Isolate
Whey protein isolate is the most pure and concentrated form of whey protein available. Whey protein isolates, consisting of 90 - 100% protein.

Depending upon the type and sequence of manufacturing process, membrane-produced WPI may have the same ratios of whey protein found in WPC.

Its short chains and peptides make it available for absorption within ten minutes of ingestion sometimes. It's kind of a protein booster. If you asked which protein is best to invest in? WPI would be it. No sane nutritionist would tell you otherwise. 

But caution is the key, because of its short-lived half-life, it is recommended to take 2-4 times a day. The best way to counter this is to mix it in milk, the casein in milk protein slows down the digestion of the whey protein, which may give it more time to absorb. 

Whey is the best investment because of its capacity as a post-workout recovery supplement. That critical time after severe physical stress when the cells will act like a sponge and take in almost anything. The extreme hunger of the cells and the fast-acting properties of whey will make sure you use the best window for recovery to the fullest. 

So whey is the best protein, especially on a diet. It also supplies the most aminos bodybuilders use. Whey protein is the only choice when on a diet. When on low-carb diets whey can function as an alternate source of energy, sparing hard-earned muscle protein and glutamine stores within the body.

Whey Protein Concentrate
Whey protein concentrate has anywhere between  30-80% protein depending upon the product. As the protein level in whey protein concentrate decreases the amounts of fat and/or lactose usually increase.

 Food scientists agree that to maximize this functionality as a food ingredient, the proteins should receive minimal denaturation, thus requiring the least amount of heat treatment during processing. 

With its amazing health benefits and superior biological value, whey protein clearly blows the other protein sources away.


Whey Protein can make a Difference throughout your life:

Improve Your Protein Synthesis 117% and Massive Muscles Gain!

The 10 Atheletes clinical studies, conducted during the summer of 2000, proved 10 athletes taking 6 scoops a day of WHEY PROTEIN, recorded leaner, faster, stronger results after only 28 days of supervised training (1). All 10 athletes got leaner ­ 6.5% drop in body fat; they got stronger ­ one subject upped his bench press 35lbs; and they got faster ­ 40yd dash time dropped 0.4%. All 10 athletes even improved their vertical leap ­ a major power indicator ­ 2.6% in just 28 days.

They increased glutamine blood levels an incredible 15% during a sustained 28 day training period (1). Considering glutamine levels have been shown to drop 55% after an intense workout  which results in decrease of protein synthesis and muscle growth (2). Lower glutamine levels can translate to high cortisol levels, and over-trained athletes can have high cortisol levels (3,4). Released in times of stress and hard training, catabolic cortisol is a wicked muscle-destroying hormone. But by taking WHEY PROTEIN, cortisol is reduced by up to 26% (1).

Increasing Protein Synthesis :
Protein synthesis is a key factor- it controls muscle growth. Results show that 30g of whey protein increased protein synthesis 117% vs. 25% for 30g of casein. That’s a 368% greater increase! Whey protein also contributes to muscle growth by stimulating IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor) a hormone, which stimulates increased protein synthesis and stops protein breakdown (12).

Whey protein contains the highest concentration of Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCCA’s)- these amino acids are your muscles favorite amino’s because they decrease muscle degradation during exercise and allow you to train more intensively for longer periods of time (13).

Weight Control & Diet:

It seems medical research has finally uncovered a new method to help you steadily melt away body fat while retaining and toning up precious muscle.

It may seem shockingly simple, but today scientists, nutritionists and trainers all know that eating small amounts of protein often ­ every 2-3 hours or so between meals ­ is a sure-fire way to control your diet, control fat intake, and control your hunger, ultimately controlling your weight. 

Typically, when you diet, about 27% of weight loss is muscle. 
To build and retain muscle health requires protein. That’s where frequent protein snacks come in. Eating 1-2 protein bars (about 16 - 32g) every 2 or so hours between meals means your protein can be better absorbed and utilized to boost muscle health. Plus, whey protein snacks actually lower your appetite by releasing a hormone called Cholecystokinin (CCK) - one of nature’s most powerful, natural appetite suppressants.

A high protein diet can also raise your Resting Metabolic Rate by as much as 68%, helping you increase lean muscle mass and decrease body fat (16). 

Fight Off Stress:

In addition, taking whey protein daily may help you fight off stress, triggering a dramatic drop in stress hormone and a 48% increase in tryptophan, the amino acid your brain uses to build serotonin. When serotonin levels are high you’re less likely to crave comfort foods ­ like sugary snacks.
Whey protein shown to help reduce stress -
Researchers from the Netherlands have tested one of the major fractions found in whey – alpha lactalbumin and its effects on stress. They found a diet high in lactalbumin helped subjects perform better mentally under stressful conditions. Furthermore, they found the high lactalbumin diet helped reduce cortisol levels which increase in response to stressful conditions. These results are not only positive for daily stress, but also for fat storage which generally increases as cortisol levels increase accordingly.


To form Strong Bones:

Everyone knows that calcium is needed to build strong bones. But did you know that whey protein not only delivers a dose of highly absorbable calcium, it also plays an important role in bone formation?

Research shows that whey protein can increase bone density by activating bone forming cells called osteoblasts (10). With its bone-building ability, whey is a must for all active individuals, especially children and post-menopausal women. In addition, whey protein contains minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium to support bone growth and maintenance.

Whey products are safe for children over the age of four, but should never be given to diabetic children unless prescribed by a physician.


Safe Nutrients for Baby:

If you think cow’s milk or soymilk make the best infant formula, think again. Did you know that most infants are allergic to cow’s milk and many are allergic to soymilk? Keeping this in mind, is your baby as healthy as he could be?

Research has shown that an infant formula based on whey-hydrolysate is effective not only in reducing allergic reactions, but also in decreasing the prevalence and severity of eczema and infant colic (8)! And, by adding the whey fraction alpha-lactalbumin to infant formula, the formula is "humanized", making it even closer to mother’s milk that contains high levels of this powerful protein fraction with potent antioxidant properties.

A specially filtered whey protein formula was also recently shown to improve cholesterol levels when fed to healthy newborn infants (14).

One caveat: Whey is naturally high in the milk sugar, lactose, which many infants cannot tolerate. Check the label carefully and only purchase whey with the lactose removed ­ all our WHEY PROTEIN products are 99% lactose free. 


Are You One of the Millions of Americans who is Protein Deficient?

If you are an active individual, hard-core athlete, suffering from illness, pregnant, or dieting, scientific research recommends at least 0.6 - 0.9 grams/pound of body weight. Hard training bodybuilders stack as much as 2-5 times that amount! Recommended consumption depends upon the intensity level of the activity, hormone changes and various diseases and medical conditions.**

For those of you vegetarians who usually consume a far healthier diet in many ways than most Americans - eating lots of fresh fruits, vegetables and other organic whole foods - your meals can be notoriously low in protein. Whey is a "natural," dairy solution to your protein problem. It is high in lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein that helps the body absorb iron and is effective in protecting against a number of viruses (17).

Disease Prevention and Treatment

Getting enough Vitamin C is essential to good health, but are you getting enough glutathione- another vital antioxidant? Whey - one of the most powerful boosters of  immune system - is rich in glutathione boosting properties (15). Next to vitamin C, Glutathione is your body’s most powerful antioxidant ­ helping to prevent free radical damage inside your body. Glutathione serves a variety of critical functions essential to maintaining health, including the maintenance of functional and structural integrity of muscular tissue undergoing oxidative damage during exercise and aging. Some whey proteins also contain glycomacropeptides, which can help reduce the risk of both influenza and the common cold (17).

Whey’s powerful immune-enhancing effects make it an ideal supplement for people living with HIV. It raises glutathione levels (typically low in HIV patients), to protect against free radicals and aids in lymphocyte growth during immune response (15). Increased levels of glutathione may also enhance the vital activity of T-cells improving the strength of the immune system.

Whey protein shows promise in inhibiting HIV Infection -
New research from the Netherlands has looked at natural proteins with anti-HIV activity. A report from their recent study showed that lactoferrin, one of the whey protein fractions “showed considerable inhibitory activity against HIV by targeting the entry process of the virus.” Casein the primary protein found in milk, showed different results and did not significantly inhibit replication of the virus. Further studies are in progress

Information gathered by the Whey Protein Institute indicates that cancer patients undergoing Radiation or Chemotherapy often have difficulty in meeting their daily nutritional requirements due to nausea and lack of appetite, and can suffer from protein malnutrition. Whey proteins are a great protein source for cancer patients because they are easy to digest and gentle to the system.

Whey has been proven in clinical studies to be twice as effective as soy in breast cancer prevention rats. One supplement actually decreased tumor growth in rats by 60% when used in conjunction with photodynamic therapy (9)!

Helping Reduce Blood Pressure and Prevent Cardiovascular Disease 

 On May 15, 2001, the U.S. government announced the number of people who should be treated for high cholesterol will increase from 13 million to 36 million, equating to about one of every five adults in the U.S. (These results were published in the May 16, 2001 Journal of the American Medical Association)

Hypertension is one of the leading causes of heart disease and stroke. Research has shown that whey peptides from hydrolyzed whey protein isolates assist in reducing the blood pressure of hypertensive individuals by inhibiting ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme). Without ACE, the changes in the body that result in hypertension cannot occur.

Previous studies have shown promise with different components in whey protein to help reduce blood pressure. A recent study conducted at the University of Minnesota found that a specific whey protein isolate (Biozate®) with bioactive peptides reduced blood pressure with as little as one week of treatment. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure dropped and the positive change remained throughout the study. Study is scheduled to be published in Spring 2003.

 Aging Population to increase Longevity and Long Life

Whey can be a godsend for maturing women and men. Research shows that whey increases DNA and activates bone-forming cells known as osteoblasts, decreasing the risk of osteoporosis (10). A recent study conducted at Boston University showed that elderly individuals who consumed low levels of protein had a significant loss of bone, especially in the hip and spine, four years after the start of the study. In another study, 53% of 744 elderly hospitalized orthopedic female patients exhibited protein deficiencies. 
The solution? A daily diet including high amounts of whey protein can help keep bones healthy and strong as the body ages.

Many seniors are also prone to protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). PCM results in up to 20 times more complications in patient recovery, including post-operative infections, pressure sores and pneumonia, making it no surprise that older patients with PCM die at a much higher rate than well-nourished patients.

Whey proteins are an ideal source of protein and essential amino acids for elderly individuals, especially those with declining appetites. They provide energy to the body and a boost to the immune system.

We all know that a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise and a nutritious diet, may help us live a longer, more energetic life. And now it’s no secret that whey proteins also play an important role in helping you achieve your personal health goals of looking better and feeling great!

Whey under the microscope: An Overview of Components and Characteristics

Biological Activity Whey Proteins with Reported Health Benefit Activity
Protection from some cancers Whey protein concentrates
Lactoferrin
Alpha-lactalbumin
Peptides
Sphingolipids
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
Butyric acid
Protection from hypertension Immune whey protein concentrates
Peptides
Reduction in cholesterol levels Whey protein concentrates
Anti-inflammatory Peptides
Colostrums
Immune milk
Antioxidant Whey protein concentrates/isolates
Lactoferrin
Bovine serum albumin (BSA)
Vitamin C
Antithrombotic Lactoferrin
Peptides
Immunomodulation Modified whey protein concentrate
Lactoferrin
Lactoperoxidase
Kappa casein glycomacropeptide
Opioid-like activity Peptides
Prebiotics Casein glycomacropeptide
Oligosaccharides

 

On the Horizon: A bright forecast for Whey

A potentially bright future" for commercial whey protein products in nutrition and health markets.

Whey is truly an extraordinary source of protein with rich history but what's even more exciting is what the future holds for whey protein. More and more, doctors, scientists, reasearchers and health conscious individuals are turning to whey to help supplement their diets, quickly making whey the value added food ingredient of the 20th century.

Now even business experts are predicting bigger things for whey protein. In the food business are forecasting major growth trends for this new "whey" of life. One expert in the food industry, Sloan Trends & Solutions Inc. have identified whey as cutting edge market and product opportunities. As more and more health conscious Americans look to functional foods to improve the way they look and feel, whey is destined to become the protein of choice for healthy active lifestyles.

 

References:
1. Designer Protein Stacking Study 2000
2. Darmaun D, Am J Physiol 1998:274:E801-7
3. Rennie MJ, Br Med Bull 1985:41(3):257-64
4. Brillon DJ, et al. Am J Physiol 1995:268:E501-13
5. Dangin M, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001:280 (2):E340-8
6. Forslund AH, et al. Am J Physiol 1999:May; 276 (5 Pt 1):E964
7. Renner E, Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition. Munich, Germany,
1983.
8. Verwimp JJM, et al. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995:49(1):S39-S48
9. Chmiel JF, et al. The anti-tumor effects f dietary whey protein on murine
SSC VII tumors as an adjuvant to photodynamic therapy. Paper presented at
the 39th Annual Meeting/Combined Otolaryngological Spring Meeting, Scottsdale,
AZ, 1997.
10. Takada Y, Aoe S, and Kumegawa M, Biochem and Biophys Res Com 1996:223:445-449
11. Nagaoka S, et al. Biosci, Biotech, and Biochem 1992:56(9):1484-1485
12. Fryburg DA, Am J Physiol, 1994: 267: E331-E336.
13. Blomstrand E, et al. Acta Physiol Scand, 1988: 133: 115-122.
14. Weizman, et al. J Ped. Gastronenterol. & Nutr, 25:529-532.
15. Sadler R, S. Afr. J Dairy Sci, 1992; 24(2):53-58.
16. Robinson, et al. Am J Clin Nutr, 1990:52:72-80
17. Harper, J. Biological Properties of Whey Components ­ A Review. Chicago:
American Dairy Products Institute, 2000
18. Cook, JD et al. Am J Clin Nutr, 1981:34:2622-2629.

 


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